In general terms, fair use means that your artwork uses various elements of other artists in a reasonable amount. It is actually a legal defense that some countries allow to tackle infringement charges. If your design contains elements from the protected content of someone else, and if it is decided to be fair use, your artwork wouldn’t come under copyright violations.
But to make sure your artwork qualifies for fair use, you need to go to a court of law. Keep in mind that not every country practices fair use. The states that allow this practice, fair interpretation may vary according to their law. For example, Australia doesn't have any fair use defense in place for copyright or trademark use. However, there may be exceptions or limited defenses you could rely upon based on the circumstances.